Mare Nostrum (Latin for “Our Sea”) was a common Roman name for the Mediterranean Sea. The term was always somewhat ambiguous: it both implied Roman dominance of the Mediterranean and the cultural diversity of the nations that have bordered it for well over two millennia.
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The Roman Empire controlled all the shores of the Mediterranean, stretched north to England and up to the Rhine river in Germany and east to Hungary, including Rumania, Turkey and all the Near East.
The Tiber River and the Mediterranean Sea provided Rome with the opportunity to trade and conquer. At its height, the Roman Empire was one of largest and wealthiest empires in the world. It lasted for approximately 1,000 years. However, this empire had simple beginnings.
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Rough Waters: Cruise travelers might experience rough seas in several places in Europe. The biggest offender is the Mediterranean, which tends to be roughest in the fall and winter, due to winds and storms. However, avid cruisers have experienced rough seas in the spring and summer, so be prepared for anything.
People around the Mediterranean Sea have had limitless opportunities to meet with different cultures and to learn about the world and this fact, starting from the Hellenistic period, gave birth to the emergence of philosophers and scientists who made great contributions to intellectual development.
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Most nutrients are found in the bottom layers, but algae thrive in the top layers, where the sun shines, as they need light to grow. The result of all these factors is the clear, blue water that all mediterranean divers know and love so well.
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Waves don’t usually get anywhere near this big in the Mediterranean, simply because the sea isn’t big enough to hold really big low pressures like you find in the open oceans. Consequently, when you do get anomalies like this, all hell breaks loose along the coastline.
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The Black Sea is a saltwater sea, but it is of lesser salinity than the oceans. The salinity of the Black Sea’s surface waters averages between 17 and 18 parts per thousand, which is approximately half that of the oceans.
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Its chief rival, located across the Mediterranean in northern Africa, was the city-state of Carthage. Originally a Phoenician colony, Carthage had become a powerful commercial empire. Rome defeated Carthage in three Punic (Phoenician) Wars and gained mastery of the western Mediterranean.
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The Roman Empire conquered these lands by attacking them with unmatched military strength, and it held onto them by letting them govern themselves. Rome’s desire to expand had deep historical roots, says Edward J.
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Punic Wars, also called Carthaginian Wars, (264″146 bce), a series of three wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire, resulting in the destruction of Carthage, the enslavement of its population, and Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean.
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How did Rome control the privileges and benefits of citizenship? They developed the census which ranked people based on certain standards and if people did not reach any of then they would be demoted in rank.
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Citizenship in ancient Rome (Latin: civitas) was a privileged political and legal status afforded to free individuals with respect to laws, property, and governance. Roman women had a limited form of citizenship. They were not allowed to vote or stand for civil or public office.
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Citizenship varied greatly. The full citizen could vote, marry freeborn persons, and practice commerce. Some citizens were not allowed to vote or hold public office, but maintained the other rights. A third type of citizen could vote and practive commerce, but could not hold office or marry freeborn women.
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Later, the Romans created a system of government that sought the participation of its citizenry. Every citizen, women excluded, shared fully in all governmental activities with all of its rights, privileges, and responsibilities.
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Roman citizenship was a complex concept that varied according to one’s gender, parentage, and social status. Full citizenship could only be claimed by males. A child born of a legitimate union between citizen father and mother would acquire citizenship at birth.
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What were the benefits of being a roman citizen, and how did Rome use the promise of citizenship to its advantage? They could have jobs of many kind and Rome used the citizenship promise to its advantage by allowing Slaves to work for Rome but also to buy their freedom, encouraging them to work harder towards freedom.
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Most conquered enemies were offered some level of Roman citizenship, sometimes with full voting rights. Because a person had to be physically present in Rome to vote, the extension of voting rights beyond the population of the city itself did not drastically alter the political situation in Rome.
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Under the “Pax Romana”, meaning “the peace of Rome”, inhabitants of conquered lands were not automatically considered Roman citizens. But they were subject to Roman laws and paid Roman taxes.
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Plebeians, Patricians and Evolution of Roman Citizenship. Rise of the Plebeians in Rome. Plebeians Allowed to Elect Government Officials. Roman Citizenship Given to Conquered Territories.
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The Roman Republic became the Roman Empire in 27 BCE when Julius Caesar’s adopted son, best known as Augustus, became the ruler of Rome. Augustus established an autocratic form of government, where he was the sole ruler and made all important decisions.
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Roman Influence This type of government has elected officials that govern the country and are responsible to the voters who elect them. The Romans created a republic after overthrowing a king. Romans are also responsible for creating a legal code written down which protected the rights of all citizens.
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The Roman legionaries were also guaranteed a land grant or a cash payment at the end of his service, making the Roman legionary less dependent on generals for rewards after campaigns. Augustus also changed the sacramentum so that soldiers swore allegiance only to the emperor, and not to the general.
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The alimenta was a Roman welfare program that existed from around 98 AD to 272 AD. According to most modern historians, including Nerva biographers Nathan Elkins and John Grainger, it was initiated by emperor Nerva and expanded by Trajan. It helped orphans and poor children throughout Italy.
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Voting for most offices was open to all full Roman citizens, a group that excluded women, slaves and originally those living outside of Rome. In the early Republic, the electorate would have been small, but as Rome grew it expanded.
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They were able to conquer the Italian peninsula over 50 years. How did the Roman government maintain control over conquered territories? The Romans extended citizenship to those they conquered because they felt that would make the people feel like they were a part of the group.
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The Roman government maintained control over conquered territories using the strength of its military, political system, and economy.
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A people known for their military, political, and social institutions, the ancient Romans conquered vast amounts of land in Europe and northern Africa, built roads and aqueducts, and spread Latin, their language, far and wide. Use these classroom resources to teach middle schoolers about the empire of ancient Rome.
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Julius Caesar began his rise to power in 60 B.C.E. by forging an alliance with another general, Pompey, and a wealthy patrician, Crassus. Together, these three men assumed control of the Roman Republic, and Caesar was thrust into the position of consul.
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Rome had good farm and pasture land. The river provided both a defense and a way to move trade goods, along with easy access to fresh water for drinking, irrigation, and washing.
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In ad 212 the Edict of Caracalla granted citizenship to all free inhabitants of the empire. Civitas also denoted a favoured provincial community.
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For the most of the Republic and parts of the Imperial ages Romans held this constitution as almost sacred, it had after all allowed Rome to become the dominant world power. In practice though the Roman Republic really operated more as a combination between oligarchy and republic than a strict republic.
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The military was one of the key reasons for Rome’s success. The Roman army was highly trained and disciplined, growing in reputation as the best army in the world. With their success in war, the empire was able to expand its control over 3 separate continents including Asia, Africa, and most of Europe.
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Roman law had a significant influence over the modern-day laws of many countries. Legal ideas like trial by jury, civil rights, contracts, personal property, legal wills, and corporations all were influenced by Roman law and the Roman way of looking at things.
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What Benefits do you think the Romans gained from their treatment of conquered peoples? They had more soldiers for armies more to build a government with and more people to pay taxes with.
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The ideas and culture of ancient Rome influence the art, architecture, science, technology, literature, language, and law of today.
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Roman military policies helped to expand the empire. The soldiers were trained in the latest tactics of war and were well equipped with the weapons of war. One of the responsibilities of the legion soldiers was to defend the Roman Empire and not conquest.
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One of the main reasons Rome became so powerful was because of the strength of its army. It conquered a vast empire that stretched from Britain all the way to the Middle East. The army was very advanced for its time. The soldiers were the best trained, they had the best weapons and the best armour.
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This training combined with having the most advanced equipment at the time made the Roman army really powerful. The Roman army had many weapons and tactics that other armies hadn’t even heard of before! They would use huge catapults which were able to fling rocks over distances of several hundred meters.
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The Romans designed their punishments to discourage potential criminals. How you were punished depended on who you were and your position in Roman society. Whipping and fines were the most common punishments. Wooden shoes were sometimes placed on the feet of prisoners, making escape difficult.
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Aqueducts required a great deal of planning. They were made from a series of pipes, tunnels, canals, and bridges. Gravity and the natural slope of the land allowed aqueducts to channel water from a freshwater source, such as a lake or spring, to a city.
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ran the country? Before Rome was an empire the Rome was a Roman Republic a government in which citizens had the power to elect their own representatives. They elected to main officials called consuls, they were elected officials who reported to the Roman Senate. They also were once ruled by a monarchy.
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The Romans created the Roman Confederation. It gave some conquered people full Roman citizenship. They could vote and be in the government. They were also treated the same as other citizens by law.
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Auctoritas”“Spiritual Authority”: The sense of one’s social standing, built up through experience, Pietas, and Industria. Comitas”“Humor”: Ease of manner, courtesy, openness, and friendliness. Clementia”“Mercy”: Mildness and gentleness. Dignitas”“Dignity”: A sense of self-worth, personal pride.
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Though the Gauls sacked and burned Rome in 390 B.C., the Romans rebounded under the leadership of the military hero Camillus, eventually gaining control of the entire Italian peninsula by 264 B.C. Rome then fought a series of wars known as the Punic Wars with Carthage, a powerful city-state in northern Africa.
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Roman hegemony During 284 ” 280 BC the Romans fought a war against the Etruscans and Gauls in northern Italy. After first being defeated at the battle of Arretium, Rome won a decisive victory against the Gauls at the battle of Lake Vadimo leading to the Roman annexation of the ager Gallicus.