Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Great Britain? … natural resources were plentiful in Britain. The country’s rivers provided water power for the new factories and a means for transporting raw materials and finished products. Britain also had abundant supplies of coal and iron ore.
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Another major development was the Napoleonic Wars, due to increased demand by the military for iron and the effects of Napoleon’s attempted blockade of British ports in the Continental System. From 1793 to 1815, British iron production quadrupled. Blast furnaces got bigger.
After 1770, iron (and later, steel), replaced wood as the material for making industrial machines and tools. … As the Industrial Revolution began to speed up, the need for coal grew because it provided power for the factory engines, steam powered ships and steam locomotives. Second, the demand for iron increased.
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Crucially, iron enabled bridges to be built and Britain’s extensive rail network to be constructed, and the machines and engines to be built that would power cotton factories, steamships and locomotives. As well as it metallurgical uses, coal was increasingly used during the Industrial Revolution as a source of power.
How did innovations in manufacturing lead to improvements in transportation? Goods were produced efficiently and needed more efficient transportation. Goods became more valuable and required safer transportation. Inventions used in textile production also improved transportation systems.
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Those who benefited most from the Industrial Revolution were the entrepreneurs who set it in motion. The Industrial Revolution created this new middle class, or bourgeoisie, whose members came from a variety of backgrounds. Some were merchants who invested their growing profits in factories.
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What effect did the steam engine have on the coal and iron industry? It increased the need for coal and provided a by-product called “Coke” for refining and purifying iron. What was the “Rocket”? The first steam powered locomotive which could pull 10 tons of iron ore and 70 people at 5 mph.
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The use of steam engines caused fossil fuels to depleted, which was a major cause of pollution caused by steam engines.
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So, how did the steam locomotive change transportation? The steam locomotive changed transportation by allowing us to ship goods and travel faster than ever before. It gave us the ability to create new industries and mold transport into what it has become today.
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Who Benefited From The Steam Locomotive? As a result of the steam locomotive, transportation quickly became more efficient and people began to move into cities, dramatically improving the employment outlook at the same time. Only two percent of Americans were in the U.S. by 1861.
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Steam power became the energy source for many machines and vehicles, making it cheaper and easier to produce commodities in large amounts. This in turn increased the demand for raw materials used to build more machines that can produce even more commodities.
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The significance of the steam engine is that it was a way to turn heat into motion. With this ingenious device, we could now use fuel instead of wind, water or muscle power. In fact, the Newcomen engine was originally called a “fire engine”. Fuel can be transported, so engines can operate anywhere.
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The Effects on Coal and Iron There was an obvious need for coal to power steam engines, but these engines also allowed for deeper mines and greater coal production, making the fuel cheaper and steam cheaper, thus producing more demand for coal. The iron industry also benefited.
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The three most important inventions of the first Industrial Revolution include the steam engine, the spinning jenny, and the telegraph. The three most important inventions of the Second Industrial Revolution include the combustible engine, electricity, and the lightbulb.
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James Watt was an 18th-century inventor and instrument maker. Although Watt invented and improved a number of industrial technologies, he is best remembered for his improvements to the steam engine.
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How did technological advances in agriculture affect the Industrial Revolution? Wealthy landowners began to consolidate farms by enclosing them to have larger pastures. In addition, better farming equipment and better practices helped increase the supply and quality of food.
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The Industrial Revolution began in the 18th century, when agricultural societies became more industrialized and urban. The transcontinental railroad, the cotton gin, electricity and other inventions permanently changed society.
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The developments in artillery and propulsion led to another key innovation: the ironclad. Realizing how tremendously vulnerable wooden ships were to destruction by long range, explosive cannon fire, naval architects began to dramatically improve ships’ defenses by plating them with iron or steel.
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Though they had short lives, the naval battle between the two ironclads ushered in a new era in naval warfare. By the end of the Civil War, the Confederacy and Union launched over 70 ironclads, signaling the end of wooden warships.
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The ironclad was a new kind of warship first used in the Civil War. Previous warships had been built out of wood. These ships could be easily sunk by cannonballs. Ironclad warships, however, were protected with an outer armor made of iron.
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The Civil War clearly demonstrated the superiority of ironclads and revolutionized naval warfare. The Confederacy concluded in June 1861 that ironclad warships would best suit its needs.
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Once it was in range, Virginia fired at Monitor but missed, hitting Minnesota instead. Monitor, already charging forward, rotated its turret and returned fire. It was the first time in history that metal warships were facing off, and although it was an inconclusive battle, it changed naval warfare forever.
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A victory at the siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi, in 1863 gave the Union control of the Mississippi River in the American Civil War. Following the Battle of Shiloh in April 1862, General Ulysses S. Grant’s Union army moved south. Grant hoped to secure control of the Mississippi River for the Union.
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While their navies still relied on wooden ships, both sides had gambled on building revolutionary “ironclad” vessels that boasted steam engines, hulking cannons and armor plating protecting their hulls.
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The telegraph allowed the president to act as a true commander-in-chief by issuing commands to his generals and directing the movement of forces in nearly real time. For the first time, a national leader could have virtual battlefront conversations with his military officers.
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Vicksburg’s strategic location on the Mississippi River made it a critical win for both the Union and the Confederacy. The Confederate surrender there ensured Union control of the Mississippi River and cleaved the South in two.
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The Siege of Vicksburg was a great victory for the Union. It gave control of the Mississippi River to the Union. Around the same time, the Confederate army under General Robert E. Lee was defeated at the Battle of Gettysburg. These two victories marked the major turning point of the Civil War in favor of the Union.
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Which of the following explains why the capture of Vicksburg was so important? Its capture would divide the Confederacy into two halves. It would give the Union use of the Mississippi River.
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The first ironclads were built on wooden or iron hulls, and protected by wrought iron armor backed by thick wooden planking.
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Battle of Hampton Roads Changed Naval Warfare Forever.
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During the Civil War, the Union began construction of 76 ironclads, commissioning 42 of them before May 1, 1865. On the Confederate side, 59 ironclads were begun, and only 24 were completed.
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On January 1, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. With it, he freed all slaves in Confederate or contested areas of the South. However, the Proclamation did not include slaves in non-Confederate border states and in parts of the Confederacy under Union control.
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As President, he built the Republican Party into a strong national organization. Further, he rallied most of the northern Democrats to the Union cause. On January 1, 1863, he issued the Emancipation Proclamation that declared forever free those slaves within the Confederacy.
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An educator and humanitarian, Clarissa “Clara” Harlowe Barton helped distribute needed supplies to the Union Army during the Civil War and later founded the disaster relief organization, the American Red Cross.
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The Battle of Gettysburg ended the Confederates’ last major invasion of the North and is viewed by some as the war’s turning point. The Confederate loss of Vicksburg was perhaps more important because it opened the way for the North to seize control of the entire Mississippi River, cutting the Confederacy in half.
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Why was Vicksburg essential? Capturing the city allowed the Union to control the entire Mississippi River. What separated Grant from the other Union generals that commanded the Army of the Potomac?
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The siege of Vicksburg in July, 1863 was crucial for the military as it decided who would gain control over the Mississippi River. In the end, the North gained control of Mississippi River with Ulysses S. Grant as General. This siege was the turning point for the Western Theater.
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Pemberton retreated back to Vicksburg, and Grant sealed the city by the end of May. In three weeks, Grant’s men marched 180 miles, won five battles and captured some 6,000 prisoners. Terrain and Confederate fortifications around Vicksburg.
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Vicksburg’s best known contribution to American history is probably the part she played in the epic known as the Civil War. In 1859, the Mississippi state convention adopted an official resolution calling for immediate secession from the Union if an abolitionist was elected president.
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The siege of vicksburg was a great victory for the union. It gave control of the mississippi river to the union. Around the same time, the confederate army under general robert E. Lee was defeated at the battle of gettysburg. These two victories marked the major turning point of the civil war in favor of the union.
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The battle demonstrated the superiority of ironclads over wooden ships, and also their resilience to traditional naval weapons. This also changed a major axiom of naval warfare. The ship’s armor, combined with the added flexibility of movement that a steam engine provided, enabled ships to more easily take on forts.
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How did technology affect military strategy during the Civil War? Tech increased accuracy, loading, and pace of rifles. Land mines, the minie ball,trenches, barricades and grenade discovered.
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1 : sheathed in iron armor “used especially of naval vessels. 2 : so firm or secure as to be unbreakable: such as. a : binding an ironclad oath. b : having no obvious weakness an ironclad case against the defendant.