In 1868, Pierre J. C. Janssen travelled to India to measure the solar spectrum during a total eclipse and observed a new yellow line which indicated a new element. Joseph Norman Lockyer recorded the same line by observing the sun through London smog and, assuming the new element to be a metal, he named it helium.
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The first evidence of helium was obtained on August 18th, 1868 by French astronomer Jules Janssen. While in Guntur, India, Janssen observed a solar eclipse through a prism, whereupon he noticed a bright yellow spectral line (at 587.49 nanometers) emanating from the chromosphere of the Sun.
Helium was discovered in the gaseous atmosphere surrounding the Sun by the French astronomer Pierre Janssen, who detected a bright yellow line in the spectrum of the solar chromosphere during an eclipse in 1868; this line was initially assumed to represent the element sodium.
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Helium, the lightest noble gas, had shown up in spectroscopic observations of the sun and stars, but was first discovered on Earth by Ramsay in 1895. Looking for sources of argon, Ramsay treated the mineral cleveite with acid, and saw the same spectral line while studying gas given off by the reaction.
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While seeking sources of argon in the mineral kingdom, Ramsay discovered helium in 1895. Guided by theoretical considerations founded on Mendeleev’s periodic system, he then methodically sought the missing links in the new group of elements and found neon, krypton, and xenon (1898).
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Sir Norman Lockyer, an English astronomer, realized that this line, with a wavelength of 587.49 nanometers, could not be produced by any element known at the time. It was hypothesized that a new element on the sun was responsible for this mysterious yellow emission. This unknown element was named helium by Lockyer.
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French astronomer Jules Janssen discovered helium by observing the aurora of the sun, photograph ca. 1895. Of the 2.5 million people under siege in Paris during the War of 1870, the Prussian army offered just one of them free passage to leave the city”astronomer Jules Janssen.
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The first modern rubber balloons on record were made by Michael Faraday in 1824. He used these to contain gasses he was experimenting with, especially hydrogen. By 1825 similar balloons were being sold by Thomas Hancock, but like Faraday’s they came disassembled, as two circles of soft rubber.
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Where is Helium from? On the Earth, most helium is a radioactive decay product of uranium and thorium. It is found under the Earth’s crust with other natural gases. Commercial helium is extracted from natural gas when the helium concentra on is above 0.3%.
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The major source of helium is natural gas.
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On August 18, 1868, Janssen managed to do just that. He became the first person to observe helium, an element never before seen on Earth, in the solar spectrum. At the time, though, Janssen didn’t know what he’d seen”just that it was something new. The mid-1800s was an exciting time to peer at the heavens.
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It’s often considered a special discovery as the first and only element to be identified outside Earth. He used this spectroscope to make the discovery (now part of the Science Museum Group Collection).
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He first discovered argon and then helium, followed by the other noble gases. The Scottish chemist William Ramsay (1852″1916) is known for work that introduced a whole new group to the periodic table, variously called over time the inert, rare, or noble gases.
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In his book The Gases of the Atmosphere (1896), Ramsay showed that the positions of helium and argon in the periodic table of elements indicated that at least three more noble gases might exist.
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Sir William Ramsay KCB FRS FRSE (/ˈræmzi/; 2 October 1852 ” 23 July 1916) was a Scottish chemist who discovered the noble gases and received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1904 “in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air” along with his collaborator, John William Strutt, 3rd …
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Helium comes from the Greek word for sun, helios. That connection to the sun is the reason why, for nearly three decades after it was first observed, chemists dismissed the element that we use today for everything from filling party balloons to cooling the Large Hadron Collider”and now helium is rapidly diminishing.
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August 18, 1868: Pierre Janssen discovered Helium at Guntur, India while observing solar eclipse | News ” Times of India Videos.
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French astronomer Pierre Jules César Janssen camped out in Guntoor, India, to watch as the moon passed in front of the sun and revealed the solar prominences. Like other sun-gazers that morning, Janssen discovered that the prominences were mostly made of super-hot hydrogen gas.
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Working in Bailey Hall on December 7, 1905, Hamilton P. Cady and David F. McFarland discovered significant amounts of helium in a natural gas sample from Dexter, Kansas.
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Pierre Janssen, in full Pierre Jules César Janssen, also called Jules Janssen, (born February 22, 1824, Paris, France”died December 23, 1907, Meudon), French astronomer who in 1868 discovered the chemical element helium and how to observe solar prominences without an eclipse.
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Also in 1868, he and French astronomer Pierre Janssen, working independently, discovered a spectroscopic method of observing solar prominences without the aid of an eclipse to block out the glare of the Sun. Lockyer identified the element helium in the solar spectrum 27 years before that element was found on Earth.
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Fun Facts About Helium: The word helium comes from the Greek helios, which means sun! Helium atoms are so light that they are able to escape Earth’s gravity! Helium that is bought in cylinders (like the ones used to fill your party balloons!) is produced by radioactive decay of thorium and uranium!
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Helium is the second-most common element in the universe, but it’s comparatively rare on Earth. It also fulfills a surprising role in everything from space exploration to quantum computing.
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The surprising effect of helium is that it technically doesn’t make your voice higher. Although it’s often said that sound travels faster through denser materials, this is not true.
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The rubber balloon was invented in 1824 by Professor Michael Faraday, to be used in his hydrogen experiments at the Royal Institution in London. Faraday made them by cutting two sheets of tacky rubber and pressing the edges together to seal them.
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Why do we celebrate things with balloons? Because they’re cheap and colorful, and people like watching things fly away. Balloons in their various forms were invented for use in military communications, scientific experiments, and transportation, but it wasn’t long before people began to have fun with them.
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If our supply ran out, it could spell the end of MRI testing, LCD screens and birthday-party balloons. Or it could make all of those things much more expensive. Although argon ” another inert gas ” can be substituted for helium for welding purposes, no other element can do what helium can do in supercold applications.
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Once the gas leaks into the atmosphere, it is light enough to escape the Earth’s gravitational field so it bleeds off into space, never to return. We may run out of helium within 25″30 years because it’s being consumed so freely.
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Helium is all over the universe”it’s the second-most abundant element. But on Earth, it’s much less common. It can’t be artificially produced and must be extracted from natural gas wells.
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Perhaps the most familiar use of helium is as a safe, non-flammable gas to fill party and parade balloons. However, helium is a critical component in many fields, including scientific research, medical technology, high-tech manufacturing, space exploration, and national defense.
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NASA uses helium as an inert purge gas for hydrogen systems and a pressurizing agent for ground and flight fluid systems. Helium is also used throughout the agency as a cryogenic agent for cooling various materials and has been used in precision welding applications.
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The United States is the largest helium producer worldwide. In 2021, the production of helium in the U.S. stood at approximately 77 million cubic meters, taking into account helium extracted from natural gas and helium production from the Cliffside gas field in Texas.
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As of 2021, the reserves of helium in the United States amounted to some 8.5 billion cubic meters, making it the country with the largest reserves of helium globally. Algeria was the second leading country in terms of helium reserves, with reserves totaling 1,800 cubic meters.
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Usually, the sound waves your vocal cords produce travel through air in your voice box. But when they go through the helium that you’ve inhaled, they travel about three times faster. That’s because helium is so much lighter than air. When sound waves speed up but their frequency stays the same, each wave stretches out.
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Helium is mined along with natural gas, using a drill rig to drill wells deep into the earth’s crust. A drill rig must penetrate a layer called the Cap Rock to reach a natural gas reserve.
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Neon was discovered in London in 1898 by a pair of British chemists: Sir William Ramsay and Morris W. Travers. Ramsay chilled a sample of air until it became a liquid. He then warmed this liquid, capturing the gases as they boiled off.
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Globally, Ukraine supplies about 70% of the world’s neon gas and 40% of the global krypton supply. Moreover, Ukraine supplies 90% of the highly purified, semiconductor-grade neon for chip production used by U.S. industry. China, Japan, and South Africa are among the other major suppliers of neon.
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Ramsay understood the principles of Mendeleev’s periodic table, and knew that the elements were sorted into groups. Argon and helium were easily put into their own, new group, so he figured there were probably more unknown elements in that group, the noble gases.