“The first example we have of Africans being taken against their will and put on board European ships would take the story back to 1441,” says Guasco, when the Portuguese captured 12 Africans in Cabo Branco”modern-day Mauritania in north Africa“and brought them to Portugal as enslaved peoples.
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European exploration of Sub-Saharan Africa begins with the Age of Discovery in the 15th century, pioneered by the Kingdom of Portugal under Henry the Navigator.
Africa’s two most profitable mineral resources are gold and diamonds. In 2008, Africa produced about 483 tons of gold, or 22 percent of the world’s total production.
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In most African states one or two primary commodities dominate the export trade”e.g., petroleum and petroleum products in Libya, Nigeria, Algeria, Egypt, Gabon, the Republic of the Congo, and Angola; iron ore in Mauritania and Liberia; copper in Zambia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo; cotton in Chad; coffee in …
China is currently Africa’s largest trading partner, having surpassed the US in 2009.
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The historian Marcel Trudel catalogued the existence of about 4,200 slaves in Canada between 1671 and 1834, the year slavery was abolished in the British Empire. About two-thirds of these were Native and one-third were Blacks. The use of slaves varied a great deal throughout the course of this period.
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The recorded history of Haiti began on 5 December 1492, when the European navigator Christopher Columbus landed on a large island in the region of the western Atlantic Ocean that later came to be known as the Caribbean.
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In 1981, Mauritania became the last country in the world to abolish slavery, when a presidential decree abolished the practice. However, no criminal laws were passed to enforce the ban. In 2007, “under international pressure”, the government passed a law allowing slaveholders to be prosecuted.
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The capture and sale of enslaved Africans European traders captured some Africans in raids along the coast, but bought most of them from local African or African-European dealers. These dealers had a sophisticated network of trading alliances collecting groups of people together for sale.
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For three and a half centuries, European slavers carried African captives across the Atlantic in slave ships originating from ports belonging to all major European maritime powers“Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Britain, France, and Brandenburg-Prussia.
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Of those Africans who arrived in the United States, nearly half came from two regions: Senegambia, the area comprising the Senegal and Gambia Rivers and the land between them, or today’s Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau and Mali; and west-central Africa, including what is now Angola, Congo, the Democratic Republic of …
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Mississippi Becomes Final State to Abolish Slavery.
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It was a decision that increased tensions with slave-holders among the Anglo-Americans. After the Texas Revolution ended in 1836, the Constitution of the Republic of Texas made slavery legal.
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Why Did it Take so Long for Texas to Free Slaves? The Emancipation Proclamation extended freedom to enslaved people in Confederate States that were still under open rebellion. However, making that order a reality depended on military victories by the U.S. Army and an ongoing presence to enforce them.
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The word Africa was initiated by the Europeans and came into Western use through the Romans after the three Punic battles (264 BC to 146 BC) led by Publius Cornelius Scipio and the people of Carthage which is present-day Tunisia.
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The whole region that includes what the Bible calls the Land of Canaan, Palestine and Israel was an extension of the African mainland before it was artificially divided from the main African continent by the manmade Suez Canal.
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What was Africa called before Africa? The Kemetic or Alkebulan history of Afrika suggests that the ancient name of the continent was Alkebulan. The word Alkebu-Ian is the oldest and the only word of indigenous origin. Alkebulan meaning the garden of Eden or the mother of mankind.
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Slaveholders viewed their slaves often only as property. If a person was buying slaves, they would only be willing to pay for slaves that could do the work not for the slave’s family.
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A major issue in the topic of attitudes toward slavery is that of race. Although slaves were usually outsiders and often despised, there nevertheless were different kinds of outsiders and different degrees of contempt. Studies have shown that race made a difference.
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In what different ways did slaveholders encourage obedience from their slaves? Planters offered better food, clothing, and shelter”as well as punishment for any wrongdoing. What was the purpose of African American folktales? African-American folktales were passed down through many generations.
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The dynamic of the relationships between slaves and their master was one which was designed to undermine and demean the slave. The master exercised complete authority and dominion over his slaves and treated them harshly. The masters’ perception of blacks was that they lacked self-discipline and morality.
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An enslaver exerted power over those they kept in bondage. They referred to themself as a master or owner ” hierarchical language which reinforced a sense of natural authority.
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Slaves were punished by whipping, shackling, hanging, beating, burning, mutilation, branding, rape, and imprisonment. Punishment was often meted out in response to disobedience or perceived infractions, but sometimes abuse was performed to re-assert the dominance of the master (or overseer) over the slave.
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Most northerners did not doubt that black people were inferior to whites, but they did doubt the benevolence of slavery. The voices of Northern abolitionists, such as Boston editor and publisher William Lloyd Garrison, became increasingly violent.
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To sustain a sense of family identity, slaves often named their children after parents, grandparents, recently deceased relatives, and other kin. Slaves passed down family names to their children, usually the name of an ancestor’s owner rather than their current owner’s.
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What was one way slaveholders attempted to keep slaves under control? Slave codes were used to keep slaves under control.
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How did slaves try to maintain a sense of community? Family was the most important aspect of slave communities, and slaves feared separation more than they feared punishment. Religion was very important ” they never worked on Sundays.
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1. Opportunities for most enslaved African Americans to attain freedom were few to none. Some were freed by their owners to honor a pledge, to grant a reward, or, before the 1700s, to fulfill a servitude agreement.
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What did slaves fear the most? Slaves most feared being sold away from their families.
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Slaves were punished for not working fast enough, for being late getting to the fields, for defying authority, for running away, and for a number of other reasons. The punishments took many forms, including whippings, torture, mutilation, imprisonment, and being sold away from the plantation.
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1 : a person who is marooned. 2 capitalized : a Black person of the West Indies and Guiana in the 17th and 18th centuries who escaped slavery also : a descendant of such a person. Synonyms & Antonyms Example Sentences Learn More About maroon.
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One way was to pretend not to understand what they were being told to do. Another way was to pretend to be too sick or too hurt to work. Slaves sometimes broke tools or set buildings on fire. When they died, many slaves believed that their spirits would return to West Africa.
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in which slaves obtained alcohol outside of the special occasions on which their masters allowed them to drink it. Some female house slaves were assigned to brew cider, beer, and/or brandy on their plantations.
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In 1862, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation declaring “all persons held as slaves… shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free,” effective January 1, 1863. It was not until the ratification of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution, in 1865, that slavery was formally abolished ( here ).
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Most of the Africans who were enslaved were captured in battles or were kidnapped, though some were sold into slavery for debt or as punishment. The captives were marched to the coast, often enduring long journeys of weeks or even months, shackled to one another.
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Which argument would an opponent of slavery most likely make? Slavery violates the American ideal that “all men are created equal.” What was a cause of the spread of the abolition movement?
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The North wanted to block the spread of slavery. They were also concerned that an extra slave state would give the South a political advantage. The South thought new states should be free to allow slavery if they wanted.
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Southern States wanted to count the total slave population while Northern States did not want to count any slaves in making the apportionment. Another compromise determined that three-fifths of the total slave population should be counted in apportioning both representatives and direct taxes.
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White Southerners justified slavery by saying that someone needed to produce all the cotton and without the slaves, no one would do it, and the cotton kingdom would fall apart. They believed without slavery, blacks would become violent, and that slavery provided a sense of order. You just studied 5 terms!
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Which describes a common experience for enslaved families? Family members often were sold separately and split up from one another.
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How does having power over their slaves seem to affect the overseer and the owner? Both the master and the overseer are very cruel and physically abuse their slaves. 6. What scene does Douglass vividly describe?
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More than half of the enslaved African captives in the Americas were employed on sugar plantations. Sugar developed into the leading slave-produced commodity in the Americas. During the 16th and 17th centuries, Brazil dominated the production of sugarcane.
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Indentured servitude differed from slavery in that it was a form of debt bondage, meaning it was an agreed upon term of unpaid labor that usually paid off the costs of the servant’s immigration to America. Indentured servants were not paid wages but they were generally housed, clothed, and fed.
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Music was a way for slaves to express their feelings whether it was sorrow, joy, inspiration or hope. Songs were passed down from generation to generation throughout slavery. These songs were influenced by African and religious traditions and would later form the basis for what is known as “Negro Spirituals”.
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They blended their languages, cultures, and religions to create something new. D.) They worked for seven years, at which time they were free to return home or live in the Americas.
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What is a significant component of slavery related to ideas about enslaved Africans’ humanity? Enslaved Africans were defined as chattel.